Fertilizer: Any natural or unnatural substance that is added to the soil or plant tissue to provide one or more nutrients needed for plant growth is called fertilizer.
So that the soil is not lacking in many nutrients, it will be very useful to use fertilizer.
There are different types of natural and industrially produced fertilizers.
In the second half of the 20th century, the increase in the use of nitrogen fertilizers (800% increase between 1961 and 2019) has been one of the essential components in increasing the productivity of conventional food systems (more than 30% per capita).
According to the IPCC Special Report on Climate and Earth Change, these methods are the main cause of global warming.
Important definitions about fertilizers:
1- Complete fertilizer: Engro fertilizer in Pakistan today that has both high-use elements and low-use elements is called complete fertilizer.
2- Organic fertilizer: Fertilizer of natural origin is called organic fertilizer.
3- Compost: organic fertilizer resulting from decomposition and compression of plants is called compost.
4- Soil fertility: The ability of the soil to transfer nutrients needed by the plant from itself to the plant is called soil fertility.
5- Microorganism: Bacteria, fungi and algae are called microorganism.
The effect of fertilizer on the plant
Fertilizers improve plant growth. This happens in two ways:
1. Increasing plant nutrients
2. Improving soil efficiency with changes in its climate maintenance.
Macronutrients are consumed in larger amounts and are present in the plant tissue in amounts ranging from 0.15% to 6% on a dry matter basis (0% moisture content).
Plants are made of four main elements: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are widely present in water and carbon dioxide.
Although nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere, plants cannot absorb it in this way.
Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer because it is present in proteins, DNA and other compounds (for example, chlorophyll).
In order for plants to absorb nitrogen, this material must be in a “fixed” form. Only certain bacteria and their host plants (especially legumes) can “fix” nitrogen by converting it to ammonia.
The presence of phosphate is necessary for the production of DNA and adenosine triphosphate, the main energy carrier in cells.
Micronutrients are consumed on smaller scales and are present in plant tissue in very small parts per million (ppm) amounts, ranging from 0.15 to 400 ppm dry matter.
These elements are present in the places of active enzymes that are responsible for plant metabolism.
Because these elements activate catalysts (enzymes), their effect is greater than their weight percentage.